Analyse & Kritik

Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory

Suchergebnisse

"Marlies Ahlert"

Titel: Aspiration Balancing Agreements: A New Axiomatic Approach to Bounded Rationality in Negotiations
Autor: Marlies Ahlert
Seite: 121-138

Abstract: A wealth of experimental findings on how real actors do in fact bargain exists. However, as long as there is no systematic general account of the several experiments bargaining theory remains dominated by axiomatic approaches based on normative requirements or on assumptions of full rather than bounded rationality. Contrary to that, the new axiomatic account of aspiration level balancing in negotiations of boundedly rational actors presented in this paper incorporates experimental findings systematically into economic bargaining theory. It thereby forms a descriptive theory of bargaining that has normative power as well.

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Titel: Binmore, Boundedly Rational
Autor: Marlies Ahlert / Hartmut Kliemt
Seite: 104-110

Abstract: It is argued that a truly Humean approach to social interaction and to normative reflection on how we should interact needs to get even closer to the facts than the Binmore program suggests. In view of the facts Binmore’s normative conclusions on bargaining as well as on the nature of the equilibria of the game of life both seem precarious.

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Titel: Kidney Allocation in Eurotransplant. A Systematic Account of the Wujciak-Opelz Algorithm
Autor: Marlies Ahlert / Gundolf Gubernatis / Hartmut Kliemt
Seite: 156-172

Abstract: In the Eurotransplant region transplantable kidneys from cadaveric donors are allocated according to the Wujciak-Opelz algorithm. This paper shows that the algorithm as it stands fulfils certain normative standards of a more formal nature while violating others. In view of these insights, it is explored how the algorithm could perhaps be improved. Even if issues of substantial rather than formal adequacy need to be addressed separately, analyses as presented in this paper can prepare the ground for a discussion of substantive normative issues. In any event, axiomatic accounts can tell us something about what we are in fact doing when using a procedure like the Wujciak-Opelz algorithm.

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Titel: A Lexicographic Decision Rule With Tolerances. The Example of Rule Choice in Organ Allocation
Autor: Marlies Ahlert / Hartmut Kliemt
Seite: 191-204

Abstract: The implementation of the Wujciak algorithm as a new rule for organ allocation by Eurotransplant is of considerable interest for the theorist of choice making. In the process reformers accepted the status quo in principle but expected that their potential opponents would be willing to make minimal or 'tolerable' concessions. Thereby the consensual introduction of new dimensions of value and reforms of allocation practices based thereupon became viable. The paper characterizes a decision procedure based on ,almost lexicographically pre-ordering established values and practices, in a stylized manner, presents a formal reconstruction of it and points out some of its potential implications for rule choices in general.

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Titel: Common Sense in Organ Allocation
Autor: Marlies Ahlert / Gundolf Gubernatis / Ronny Klein
Seite: 221-244

Abstract: In a questionnaire study on organ allocation 348 students of medicine (102) and economics (246) at the universities of Halle (114 students) and Hannover (234 students) responded to questions concerning their basic attitudes toward alternative criteria of organ allocation. Medical criteria were widely accepted by the respondents. Considerations concerning the patient's value to society were seen as being of minor importance. With respect to reciprocity, we could detect a high share of respondents who would favor former living donors and discriminate against murderers. Among considerations of fairness, the criterion of waiting time gained the highest support. Furthermore, majorities favored the view that health-compromising behavior and differences in age should play a role. Economic considerations were strongly rejected as criteria of organ allocation.

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Titel: Patterns of Decision Making in Kidney Allocation
Autor: Marlies Ahlert
Seite: 262-270

Abstract: Experts in the field of organ transplantation had to rank order a set of 32 patients according to their priority in receiving a donated kidney. The patients were described by the five characteristics that are incorporated in the kidney allocation algorithm applied by ,Eurotransplant,. The priority rankings as defined by the experts were analyzed and patterns of decision making identified in the rankings investigated in this study. All patterns could be explained by some type of lexicographical ranking. The larger group of experts preordered tissue compatibility or, more technically speaking, the criterion of HLA match, while the complementary group applied the criterion of the length of waiting time first. Analyzing the finer decision structures of expert rankings and comparing the method of pattern exploration with a conjoint measurement analysis led to two follow-up questions: First, how can the value judgments of the experts be described adequately? Second, which type of aggregated ordering derived from the individual rankings represents them best?

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Perspectives on Social Choice
2007 (29) Heft 2
Guest-Editor: Marlies Ahlert

Editorial
Introduction and Overview

This volume of Analyse & Kritik approaches social choice from different angles. Each of the papers thematically has some relation with the work of Wulf Gaertner. This provides some topical unity to the volume. However, other than in case of a typical Festschrift the refereed papers are in all other regards independent contributions to the field of social choice as very widely understood. Methods reach from axiomatic analyses over experiments to simulations and from t...

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Making Choices in Organ Allocation
2001 (23) Heft 2
Guest-Editors: Marlies Ahlert / Hartmut Kliemt

Editorial





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