Titel: On the Concept of Basic Social Norms
Autor: Wolfgang Detel
Abstract: In sociology, social philosophy, social ontology, and classical choice theory the notion of a social norm is usually introduced by using a rich normative, semantic, and social vocabulary, while the notions that evolutionary game theory proceeds from seem too poor to elucidate the idea of social norms. In this paper, I suggest to define a notion of social norms that is as basic as possible, in the sense that it relies only on notions like affects, feelings as well as regularities, standards, and corrections of behaviour. These notions suffice to explain non-linguistic traditions, practices, sanctions, and, finally, basic social norms. Two of the aims of the paper are, first, to clarify the idea of genuine normativity and second, to explore whether the sort of normativity involved in basic social norms is part of a bridge between nature and the social realm.
Titel: Zum Begriff nicht-mathematischer Funktionen
Autor: Birgit Samson / Wolfgang Detel
Abstract: roceeding from a set of conditions that an adequate notion of a non-mathematical function should satisfy, we examine some of the most influential of these notions, including Cummins-functions, to conclude that the teleosemantic notion of a non-mathematical proper function, suggested originally by Ruth Millikan, best satisfies the proposed conditions. In particular, this notion allows us to talk consistently about organisms having some functions while operating, at the same time, dysfunctionally. In addition, we show that the teleosemantic notion of relational and adaptive proper functions can be applied to singular events being part of developments in evolution and learning processes. We conclude that it is in this framework, rather than on the basis of the so-called theory of memes, that an application of the teleosemantic notion of a proper function to social areas can be seriously considered.
Titel: Funktionale Erklärungen bei Marx
Autor: Wolfgang Detel
Abstract: In the following attempt at a further clarification of the methodological aspects of Marxian theory construction it is demonstrated that central arguments in the first part of the Kapital, especially the description of the development from simple to capitalist commodity production, can be analysed as functional explanations in the modern logical sense. At the same time it becomes clear that some questionable conclusions which have been arrived at on the ba-sis of this description, e.g. the development of capitalism being a necessary condition for the later formation of socialism, can be understood as results of certain methodological defects in Marx, functional explanations.
2002 (24) Heft 1
Vor gut 50 Jahren wurde die amerikanische Soziologie fast vollständig von T. Parsons' Programm des 'strukturellen Funktionalismus' dominiert. Erst in den 1960er Jahren begann das strukturfunktionale Programm an Einfluss zu verlieren, als seine auf Bestanderhalt und Stabilität ausgerichtete Grundidee mit der sich rapide verändernden Gesellschaft des sich verschärfenden Vietnamkriegs, der black-power-Bewegung und der Studentenrevolte in zunehmenden Widerspruch geriet. Starke Armut und einseiti...