1988 (10) Issue 1
ANALYSE & KRITIK erscheint jetzt im zehnten Jahrgang. Die Gründung dieser Zeitschrift war an dem Ziel orientiert, den Dialog zwischen zwei wissenschaftlichen Traditionen zu fördern: zwischen der analytischen Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie einerseits und einer der kritischen Aufklärung verpflichteten Sozialwissenschaft andererseits. Ausgangspunkt war die Beobachtung, daß die Entwicklung der Sozialwissenschaften vor allem im deutschen Sprachraum im Anschluß an den spektakulären, aber s...
Table of Contents
Title: The Forms of Power
Author: Thomas E. Wartenberg
Abstract: The question of how to define the concept of social power has been a focus of controversy among social theorists. In this paper, I put forward a definition of social power that avoids many of the pitfalls of previous attempts at such a definition. Roughly, I define the power which one agent has over another as the ability that the dominant agent has to control the situation within which the subservient agent acts. Using this basic definition of power, I go on to define many of the central forms in which power actually exists, forms that are conceptualized by such concepts as force, coercion, and influence. I show that these different forms of power can all be understood as specifications of the generic definition of power that I offered and go on to develop an account of how they function in relation to one another in actual relationship of social power.
Title: Elements of Constraint
Author: Matti Häyry / Timo Airaksinen
Abstract: This paper analyses the various effects of threats and offers on freedom. Both threats and offers are related to social power. Threats are part of coercion and they are constraints. We try to say why this is so. Offers are more problematic. We identify soft and hard offers, or offers that can be refused and those that cannot. Hard offers have several interesting features, especially in relation to individual preference orders and sets of action alternatives. This paper studies problems which are implicit in Thomas Wartenberg's study of the various forms of social power in this issue of ANALYSE & KRITIK.
Title: Group Action and Social Ontology
Author: Robert Ware
Abstract: In recent years there has been an interesting turn in the philosophical literature to groups and collective action. At the same time there has been a renewed interest in various forms of methodological individualism. This paper attempts to show the diversity of group action that is overlooked by much of the literature, to clarify some of the ambiguities that plague our language about groups and collectives, and to support the view that social entities are genuine. Some important arguments against social entities being genuine are rebutted. The existence of social entities gives some substance to the debate about methodological individualism, but the resolution of the debate has depended too much on empirical results in the distant future. The article ends with some suggestions on how the debate matters in looking for biases in the directions of current social theorizing.
Title: Recent Work on the Emotions
Author: Daniel M. Farrell
Abstract: In this paper I review recent philosophical work in English on the nature of emotion. I begin with the well-known attacks of Bedford, Kenny and Pitcher on what I call the traditional (i. e., Cartesian) view of the nature of emotion. I then trace and discuss the successive alternative views that have been developed in the past thirty years. My aim is both to review the development of these alternative views and to indicate what particular problems have come to be considered the central problems in this area. A comprehensive bibliography of recent work in English is appended.